Name of the Lecture:

Injury in central nervous system and cerebrovascular diseases

Required Prior Knowledge:

  • Basic vascular anatomy of CNS

  • Basic gross anatomy of cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum

  • Basic histology of cell types in CNS

  • Basic physiology of cerebrospinal fluid

  • Basic physiology of blood brain barrier

Aim of the Lecture:

  • To teach basic injury response of CNS to various lesions

  • To teach pathology of fluid flows in CNS and pathologies related to vascular lesions

Goals of the lecture:

The students will learn:

  • The basic reaction patterns to injury in CNS and how it differs from those of other organ systems

  • Fluid imbalances in CNS

  • Pathologies of flow of cerebrospinal fluid

  • Cerebrovascular diseases

  • The pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases, their macroscopic and microscopic features

The students will compare the morpgologic and pathophysiologic features with clinical presentations.

Lecture Outlines:

  • Patterns of injury in the nervous system

    • Neuronal Injury, Red Neurons

    • Astrocytic reaction to the injury, Gliosis

  • Edema

    • Vasogenic Edema

    • Cytotoxic Edema

  • Herniation

    • Subfalcine (cingulate) herniation

    • Transtentorial (uncinate) herniation

    • Tonsillar herniation

  • Hydrocephalus

    • Noncommunicating hydrocephalus

    • Communicating hydrocephalus

  • Cerebrovascular Diseases

    • Stroke

    • Hypoxia

    • Global Ischemia

    • Focal Ischemia

    • Nonhemorrhagic Infarcts

    • Hemorrhagic Infarcts

    • Intracranial Hemorrhage

    • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    • Saccular Aneurysms

    • Vascular Malformations

    • Hypertensive Cerebrovascular Diseases

    • Vasculitis

References:

Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th edition, pp: 811, 812-813, 814-819

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